Writing Style Guideline


Writing Style Guidelines for Contributors

Dear contributors, before you submit your work, it’s important you read and follow the guidelines below.

Below are the main elements of the Journal style that authors are requested to follow in preparation for their work. Following these guidelines will help in quicker processing. Authors are requested to pay particular attention to citation, referencing and the limited use of endnotes.

In-Text Citations


Referring to the works of others in the text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation.

Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Barua 1993).

All author-date citations will go in the text, with full references in the bibliography.

Please do not use ibid. or op.cit. All such citations must follow the author-date citation approach, even when there are repeated citations.

Page Numbers

Provide the author and date, followed by a colon and the specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text.

According to Mitra’s study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (1884: 72).

Eliot’s theories on sensibility are also a poet’s way of explaining his own work (Leavis 1964: 36–43).


The basic form for a book citation is Last name, First name (Year of publication): Title of book, Place of publication: Publisher.

Book with One Author

Gleick, James (1987): Chaos: Making a New Science, New York: Penguin.

Henley, Patricia (1999): The Hummingbird House, Denver: MacMurray.

Book With More Than One Author

First author name is written the last name first; subsequent author names are written first name, last name.

Gillespie, Paula and Neal Lerner (2000): The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring, Boston: Allyn.

Two or More Books by the Same Author

Use an em dash for the author’s name after the first time. List books by year.

Palmer, William J (1993): The Films of the Eighties: A Social History, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

— (1997): Dickens and New Historicism, New York: St Martin’s.

Book by a Corporate Author

A corporate author may be a commission, a committee, or any group whose individual members are not identified on the title page.

Indian Allergy Association (1998): Allergies in Children, New Delhi: Penguin.

For Book Chapters

Surname, initials (year), “chapter title”, editor’s surname, initials (Ed.), title of book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), “The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum”, Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp.15-20.

Article in a Scholarly Journal

Author(s) (Year): “Title of article,” Title of journal, Volume, Issue, pages.

Bagchi, Alaknanda (1996): “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu,” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, Vol 15, No 1, pp 41–50.

For Journals

Surname, initials (year), “title of article”, journal name, volume issue, page numbers.

e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), “Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.72-80.

For Published Conference Proceedings

Surname, initials (year of publication), “title of paper”, in editor’s surname, initials (Ed.), title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Wilde, S. and Cox, C. (2008), “Principal factors contributing to the competitiveness of tourism destinations at varying stages of development”, in Richardson, S., Fredline, L., Patiar A., & Ternel, M. (Ed.s), CAUTHE 2008: Where the ‘bloody hell’ are we?, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, pp.115-118.

For Unpublished Conference Proceedings

Surname, initials (year), “title of paper”, paper presented at [name of conference], [date of conference], [place of conference], available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), “Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki”, paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/file/aumueller05wiksar.pdf (accessed 20 February 2007).

For Working Papers

Surname, initials (year), “title of article”, working paper [number if available], institution or organization, place of organization, date.

e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), “How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments”, working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For Encyclopaedia Entries (with no Author or Editor)

Title of encyclopaedia (year), “title of entry”, volume, edition, title of encyclopaedia, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926), “Psychology of culture contact”, Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp.765-771.

(for authored entries, please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For Newspaper Articles (Authored)

Surname, initials (year), “article title”, newspaper, date, page numbers.

e.g. Smith, A. (2008), “Money for old rope”, Daily News, 21 January, pp.1, 3-4.

For Newspaper Articles (non-Authored)

Newspaper (year), “article title”, date, page numbers.

e.g. Daily News (2008), “Small change”, 2 February, p.7.

For Archival or Other Unpublished Sources

Surname, initials (year), “title of document”, unpublished manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

e.g. Litman, S. (1902), “Mechanism & Technique of Commerce”, unpublished manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

For Electronic Sources

If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as the date that the resource was accessed.

Surname, initials (year), “title of electronic source”, available at: persistent URL (accessed date month year).

e.g. Weida, S. and Stolley, K. (2013), “Developing strong thesis statements”, available at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/1/ (accessed 20 June 2018)

Standalone URLs, i.e. those without an author or date, should be included either inside parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (Roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

Therefore Providing Only the URL is Usually not Sufficient.

Required information

· Citations of electronic sources should include an author or editor, the title of the text, date, the title of the website, the electronic address, and page or paragraph numbers. If the date when the source was accessed is crucial to the argument, include it in brackets at the end.

· Citations of books, journal articles, periodicals, and other sources published online should follow EPW style for traditional citations as closely as possible, with the addition of the electronic address or URL. Citation of online sources of a publication/article that was originally published in print should be an addition, and not the only citation.

Citations to online postings and email messages must include the date they were posted or sent.

For Data

Surname, initials (year), title of dataset, name of data repository, available at: persistent URL, (accessed date month year).

e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (2015), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v4, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07218.v4 (accessed 20 June 2018)

Tables and Figures Citation

Please cite each table or figure in the main text. Follow the same rules for citing tables or figures in the appendixes.

The production of urea was 640 million tonnes in 1994 compared to 540 tonnes in 1991 (Table 2).

Exports rose from 2,768 heavy vehicles in 1988-89 to more than 12,000 a year by 2001-02 (Figure 5).

Use a table or figure only when it amplifies and illustrates the discussion in the text.

Please take care to list all units in a table/figure. List all legends in a figure. All sources should be mentioned in full.

Non-English Terms

Give the term in italics on first appearance and provide its approximate English translation in parentheses (if the explanation is short) or in an endnote (if it is long).

The term will be in plain without the translation for all subsequent appearances

Government Publications

Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise start with the ministry, committee, agency, or any subdivision that served as the author, followed by the date, title, place, and publisher. For parliament or assembly documents, try to include the relevant session.

Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (1979): “Debate on the Geopolitics of Oil,” Monsoon session, 1978, Lok Sabha, New Delhi: Government Press.



Please also Follow These Style Guideline for Standard Writing Pattern

Article Format

Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format

While you are welcome to submit a PDF of the document alongside the Word file, PDFs alone are not acceptable. LaTeX files can also be used but only if an accompanying PDF document is provided. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.

Article Length / Word Count

Articles should be between 3000 and 9000 words in length. This includes all text, for example, the structured abstract, references, all text in tables, and figures and appendices.

Article Title

A concisely worded title should be provided.

Author Details

The names of all contributing authors should be added to the article submission; please list them in the order in which you’d like them to be published. Each contributing author will need their the following details: Full Name, Email Address, Mobile Number, Affiliation, Post Held, and Full Postal Address. (Note: You may find these things in detail the submission section.)

In multi-authored papers, it’s important that ALL authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be featured in an acknowledgements section. You should never include people who have not contributed to the paper or who don’t want to be associated with the research. Read about our adopted RESEARCH ETHICS (here https://publicationethics.org/) for authorship.


Your submission should include 6 to 9 which can be up to 12 appropriate and short keywords that capture the principal topics of the paper. The Journal is adopting SEO Friendly Manuscript Policy to make search-engine friendly keywords.

Please note, while we will always try to use the keywords you’ve suggested, the in-house editorial team may replace some of them with matching terms to ensure consistency across publications and improve your article’s visibility.


Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the required hierarchy.

The preferred format is for first level headings to be in bold, and subsequent sub-headings to be in medium italics.

Principle: A hierarchy of headings organises complex text, but please keep it to a maximum of three levels.

4 Financial and Economic Evaluation (Level 1)

4.1 Economic Benefits (Level 2)

4.1.1 Flood Control (Level 3)

It is advisable to have only two levels of headings, and if absolutely necessary three.

An alternative, especially when there are many sub-headings in Level 2 or Level 3 is to convert the sub-headings into bold text (or italics) and run on with the paragraph.

All photographs should be numbered as Plate 1, 2, 3, etc. and have clear captions.


All figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, webpages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted electronically. Both colour and black and white files are accepted.

There are a few other important points to note:

All figures should be supplied at the highest resolution/quality possible with numbers and text clearly legible.

Acceptable formats are .ai, .eps, .jpeg, .bmp, and .tif.

Electronic figures created in other applications should be supplied in their original formats and should also be either copied and pasted into a blank MS Word document, or submitted as a PDF file.

All figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and have clear captions.


Tables should be typed and submitted in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the main body of the article with corresponding labels clearly shown in the table file. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, etc.).

Give each table a brief title. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.

Figure or Table

Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.


All references in your manuscript must be formatted using one of the recognised Harvard styles. You are welcome to use the Harvard style Emerald has adopted – we’ve provided a detailed guide below. Want to use a different Harvard style? That’s fine, our typesetters will make any necessary changes to your manuscript if it is accepted. Please ensure you check all your citations for completeness, accuracy and consistency.

Emerald’s Harvard referencing style

References to other publications in your text should be written as follows:

Single author: (Adams, 2006)

Two authors: (Adams and Brown, 2006)

Three or more authors: (Adams et al., 2006) Please note, ‘et al’ should always be written in italics.

A few other style points. These apply to both the main body of text and your final list of references.

When referring to pages in a publication, use ‘p.(page number)’ for a single page or ‘pp.(page numbers)’ to indicate a page range.

Page numbers should always be written out in full, e.g. 175-179, not 175-9.

Where a colon or dash appears in the title of an article or book chapter, the letter that follows that colon or dash should always be lower case.

When citing a work with multiple editors, use the abbreviation ‘Ed.s’.

At the end of your paper, please supply a reference list in alphabetical order using the style guidelines below. Where a DOI is available, this should be included at the end of the reference.


The Journal uses Endnotes, and not Footnotes.

Principle: Endnotes distract readers from the flow of text. Therefore, minimize their use, keep them brief, and avoid endnote indicators in headings or subheadings.

Endnotes when used should be placed to explain or elaborate on the arguments in the text.

The endnotes should not be used to give references and notes should not be combined with references. The Journal follows the in-text citation method for citations/references.

Endnotes can however be used for evaluative bibliographic comments but not for references/citations.

Notes and References

Notes and references should not be combined. But they can stay combined in history papers, where separation is sometimes difficult.

Notes/ Endnotes

Notes or endnotes should only be used if absolutely necessary. They should be identified in the text by consecutive numbers enclosed in square brackets. These numbers should then be listed, and explained, at the end of the article.

Biographies and Acknowledgements

If you want to include these items, save them in a separate Microsoft Word document and upload the file with your submission. Where they are included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.

Research Funding

Your article must reference all sources of external research funding in the acknowledgements section. You should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.

Dear contributors, if anything unclear or left or you want to add here, please feel free write to the editor.

Document ID: UJS/2008/WritingStyle


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