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Content Withdrawal and Correction Policy

Your published work is considered a permanent version of record. Follow our guidelines if you need to edit or withdraw your work.

It is a general principle of scholarly communication that the editor of a learned journal is solely and independently responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal shall be published. In making this decision the editor is guided by policies of the journal’s editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. An outcome of this principle is the importance of the scholarly archive as a permanent, historic record of the transactions of scholarship. Articles that have been published shall remain extant, exact and unaltered as far as is possible. However, very occasionally circumstances may arise where an article is published that must later be retracted or even removed. Such actions must not be undertaken lightly and can only occur under exceptional circumstances.

General principles

We believe in protecting the integrity of our content and the role publishers play in scholarly discussion. The articles and book chapters we publish are considered to be the ‘version of record’; the permanent bibliographic ‘minutes’ of academic research. This version of record can only be edited, changed or withdrawn with good reason.

Withdrawal of an article

It is only used for articles in process to publish which represent early versions of articles and sometimes contain errors, or may have been accidentally submitted twice. Occasionally, but less frequently, the articles may represent infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like. Articles in process to publish (articles that have been accepted for publication but which have not been formally published and will not yet have the complete volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are discovered to be accidental duplicates of other published article(s), or are determined to violate our journal publishing ethics guidelines in the view of the editors (such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like), may be “withdrawn”.

We follow the principles outlined in the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA)/International Publishers’ Association (IPA) joint statement on retraction or removal of journal articles from the web.

These make it clear that an article or chapter may only be removed from a publisher’s database if it:

# Infringes professional ethical codes such as the violation of the privacy of a research subject.

# Is subject to legal dispute.

# Includes the identification of false or inaccurate data that, if acted upon, would pose a serious health risk.

We retain the appropriate bibliographical citation of the removed content wherever possible (unless subject to legal dispute).

Correction notices

About corrections

All published research is effectively a “snapshot” of a moment in time, and the version of record can’t be updated to reflect changes, for example new author affiliation or new findings.

However, we understand that sometimes errors are made during the research, writing and publishing stages. When these issues arise, we have the option of introducing one of the following correction notices.

Erratum

This generally refers to a production error introduced during the publication process. If an erratum is issued, it will appear on the abstract of the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication.

Corrigendum

This generally refers to an author error or oversight made before the paper was submitted. If a corrigendum is issued, it will appear on the abstract of the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication.

Author name changes

As a publisher, the University Trust and the University Journal of Society are committed to equality, diversity and inclusion. As part of this, University Journal of Society is constantly looking for ways to make positive changes that remove obstacles for authors. Following in the steps of the Association for Computing Machinery and the American Chemical Society, University Journal of Society is implementing an author name change policy.

Effective immediately, if University Journal of Society receives a request from an author wishing to change their name on a published article for any reason (including religious conversion, marriage, gender identity change or divorce), we will change the name on that article. We will not ask for further detail or the reason for the name change, however, we may sometimes require other information (such as the article citation) to make the change effectively.

We will make best efforts to adjust the name throughout the article, and if applicable, adjust any pronouns.

We will additionally provide the updated article to our third parties, and ask them to update their databases accordingly. However, we will not inform them as to how the article has changed.

University Journal of Society will consider any name change requests by someone who is not that author as potentially harassment, and will act accordingly.

The landscape is constantly changing, and we are aware that there may be teething issues that we encounter, but University Journal of Society will endeavour to share lessons learnt and welcomes feedback. We hope this policy will make a real difference to our authors.

Article Retraction

In fringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like. Occasionally a retraction will be used to correct errors in submission or publication. The retraction of an article by its authors or the editor under the advice of members of the scholarly community has long been an occasional feature of the learned world. Standards for dealing with retractions have been developed by a number of library and scholarly bodies, and this best practice is adopted for article retraction:

A retraction note titled “retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.

In the electronic version, a link is made to the original article.

The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note. It is to this screen that the link resolves; the reader can then proceed to the article itself.

The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”

The HTML version of the document is removed.

Retraction notice

A retraction notice will be issued in serious cases of ethical misconduct or where the research is seriously flawed and misleading. In normal circumstances, the paper will remain in the online version of the journal or book. A retraction notice will appear on the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication. Where possible, papers will remain electronically accessible but clearly state that the article has been retracted.

Article Removal: Legal Limitations

In an extremely limited number of cases, it may be necessary to remove an article from the online database. This will only occur where the article is clearly defamatory, or infringes others’ legal rights, or where the article is, or we have good reason to expect it will be, the subject of a court order, or where the article, if acted upon, might pose a serious health risk. In these circumstances, while the metadata (title and authors) will be retained, the text will be replaced with a screen indicating the article has been removed for legal reasons.

Article Replacement

In cases where the article, if acted upon, might pose a serious health risk, the authors of the original article may wish to retract the flawed original and replace it with a corrected version. In these circumstances the procedures for retraction will be followed with the difference that the database retraction notice will publish a link to the corrected re-published article and a history of the document.

Note of clarification

A note of clarification will be used when a point needs to be emphasised or clarified in the text, but it does not constitute a correction. Please note that any correction has to be highlighted as a stated erratum, corrigendum or note of clarification, and the text cannot be amended. This is designed to make it clear to the reader that there have been changes to the text, which they might have cited or referred to in their subsequent research or practice.

Expression of concern

In cases where a conclusion is unclear or where we are unable to make a fair decision due to conflicts of interest or lack of information, we will publish an expression of concern regarding the paper. An expression of concern will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level, so it is visible to all readers, including non-subscribers.

Content Correction Request by the Creator/ Author

An Erratum, or correction of an article, should be issued if:

A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)

The author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included)

Manuscripts should be retracted if:

Journal Editors have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)

The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication)

It constitutes plagiarism

It reports unethical research

Journal editors should consider issuing an expression of concern if:

They receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors

There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case

They believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive

An investigation is underway but a judgment will not be available for a considerable time

Please find and visit our ethic and code of conduct values for details.

Document ID: UJS/2108/PolicyWithdrawalCorrection

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