Content Credit, Research Credit, and Publishing Ethics



An individual who has made considerable academic contributions to a scientific investigation, for example, one who contributes significantly, to the conception, design, execution, analysis and interpretation of the data, participates in drafting, reviewing or revising the manuscript for intellectual content and approves the manuscript to be published.

Corresponding Author

If there are multiple authors in an article, one author should be designated as the Corresponding Author. A Corresponding Author assumes overall responsibility for the manuscript, providing a significant contribution to the research effort, may not necessarily be the principal investigator or project leader.


All co-authors of a publication are responsible for providing consent authorship to the Corresponding Author, should contribute to the research work, take responsibility for appropriate portions of the content, acknowledging that they have reviewed and approved the manuscript and are responsible for the content of all appropriate portions of the manuscript, including the integrity of any applicable research. Authors may acknowledge those people who helped in the research projects, such as office staff, editorial assistants, medical writers, or other individuals in their acknowledgement. Guest (symbolic), gift (an individual who has not contributed to the research work) and ghost authors are all inconsistent with the definition of authorship, and are unacceptable and a violation of this policy.

Conflict of Interest

A Conflict of Interest exists when judgement regarding the research is influenced by factors such as financial gain or personal relationships. All authors are required to disclose any financial, personal or other associations that may influence or be perceived to influence, their work.


Science Publications is committed to publishing original and unpublished material to maintain the integrity of the scientific record. The corresponding author must affirm that all of the other authors have read and approved the manuscript. All articles submitted to University Trust publications are screened for plagiarism using appropriate tools. If an article contains traces of plagiarism, Publications will lead an investigation on the matter and will take further action depending on the type of plagiarism. Duplicate submission/publication: Authors must assure that the manuscript is not being considered for publication in whole or in part elsewhere. Processing on manuscripts found to have been published elsewhere or under review will be suspended and authors will suffer sanctions.

Citation Manipulation

Citation manipulation refers to the publication of an article primarily to increase an author’s number of citations. This is against our Ethical Guidelines and we strongly advise authors not to indulge in similar activities.

Redundant Publications

The redundant publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the author. Suspected cases of redundant manuscript submission will be handled as per the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines.


In the case of a complaint of misconduct, University Trust will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. All stakeholders will be given an opportunity to share their views on the matter. If the complaint raises valid concerns, the journal will implement sanctions on authors according to the severity of the breach.

University Trust publications might find it compulsory in some cases to rectify certain pieces of literature. In which cases, University Trust publications will abide by the COPE Retraction Guidelines.

You should only submit your research to us if the following conditions apply:

The research has been conducted with the highest standards of rigour and integrity.

The article/chapter/book/case study is original.

The work has not been submitted elsewhere and is not under consideration with any other publication. See our “preprint and conference paper policies” for exceptions. Please read our “Pre-print and Conference Paper Policies” section for details.

The work does not include libellous, defamatory or unlawful statements.

Permission has been cleared for any third-party material included.

Proof of consent has been obtained for any named individuals or organisations.

Authorship has been agreed prior to submission and no one has been ‘gifted’ authorship or denied credit as an author (ghost authorship).

If your research is published and we find that any of these conditions have not been met, we may take action in line with the COPE guidelines, which may result in one of the following correction notices, or we may “remove or retract” the article or book chapter from our database. For legal reasons, or when an article or chapter forms evidence in an independent hearing, we may not be able to take action until all matters have been fully resolved. Please read our “Article Withdrawal and Correction” section for details.

Ethics issues

Clinical trials

Informed consent

Animals in research


Redundant publication


Grievance procedure


Citation manipulation


Fabricated data

Figure or image manipulation

Conflicts of interest

Our promise

Whenever a research or publishing ethics issue arises, we promise to:

Act professionally and efficiently.

Be fair and objective.

Always approach the accused party to establish their position before making a decision or committing to a course of action.

Ensure that we provide sufficient time for all parties to respond.

Keep all parties informed of decisions, including the copyright owners, editors and authors.

As members of the Committee on Publication Ethics, follow the processes highlighted in the flowcharts presented by COPE.

Protect authors’ moral rights (to be acknowledged as the author and not to be misrepresented) and to ensure the correct record of the literature.

We reserve the right to withdraw and rescind any acceptance should a case of ethical misconduct be discovered prior to publication.

It will not be possible to please all parties in every case. Following a fair and considered process, the final decision in any disputed case will rest with the editor, the University Journal of Society and the University Trust.

Summary of our research and publishing ethics

The University Trust, the University Journal of Society, and our editors are fully committed to ethical publication practice. We act in accordance with the principles outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and support the development, and practical application, of consistent ethical standards throughout the scholarly publishing community.

Document ID: UJS/2008/CreditAndEthics


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